Nose cells offer points of attack for corona virus
The exact routes of Transmission of the novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 are not always been fully elucidated. It was not clear yet, what is the role of the nose in the Transmission. A research team from Cambridge showed that specific cells in the nose and in the intestinal mucosa have the necessary receptor proteins and enzymes, so that SARS-CoV can enter 2.
Researchers from the Wellcome Sanger Institute in Cambridge, England showed that cells in the nose and in the intestinal mucosa comprise the receptor protein, ACE2 and the enzyme TMPRSS2. Both is the prerequisite for the Coronavirus SARS-CoV can penetrate 2 into the cells. First, it was assumed that the Virus infects primarily the epithelial cells of the respiratory tract. The findings were presented in two highly prestigious journals “Nature Medicine” and “Cell”.
New point of entry for SARS-CoV-2 decrypted
The origin and development (pathogenesis) of COVID-19 is still only in the approaches known. An English research team has made a great contribution to the understanding of the new disease. The Team identified two specific cell types in the nose as the probable initial infection points for SARS-CoV-2. The researchers showed that goblet and ciliated cells in the nose of a high concentration of receptors used by the Virus to enter our cells.
COVID-19: the role of The nose, it was unclear
The new findings help to explain the high transmission rate of COVID-19, and at the same time offer new approaches for treatment and containment strategies. Although it is known that the spread of SARS-CoV-2 via droplet infection and that the Virus affects the throat and the lungs. What is the role of the nose in the process, was, as yet, unclear. The research team was now able to determine the exact cell types that are in the nose for SARS-CoV-2 vulnerable.
20 different tissue types studied
The researchers analysed with the most modern techniques of 20 different tissue types of non-infected people. To do this, cells from lung, nasal cavity, eye, intestine, heart, kidney, and liver, among others. The researchers searched the ends of which type of cells are the two major proteins expressed (Express), the SARS-CoV-2 need to infect the cells.
The nose as the most likely initial route of infection
“We found that the receptor protein ACE2 and TMPRSS2 Protease, which can activate the entry of SARS-CoV-2, are expressed in cells of various organs, including the cells of the Nose lining,” explains study first author Dr. Waradon Sungnak. The investigations revealed that the mucus-producing goblet cells and ciliated cells in the nose has a high concentration of the necessary entry proteins. “That makes these cells the most likely initial route of infection for the Virus,” stresses Sungnak.
Nose cells can be achieved by the virus quickly
“This is the first Time that these particular cells were placed in the nose with COVID-19 in connection,” adds Dr. Martijn Nawijn from the research team. The location of these cells on the surface of the nose inside, make them for the Virus is very easily accessible and could facilitate the Transmission to other people. This is a possible explanation for the rapid spread.
Eye and intestinal cells are also vulnerable
The two major proteins, ACE2 and TMPRSS2 were also found in cells in the cornea of the eye and in the intestinal mucosa. This suggests another possible route of infection via the eye and tear ducts and also reveals the potential for a fecal or oral route of Transmission.
The Atlas of the human cells
The investigations were carried out in the framework of the global “Human Cell Atlas consortium”. In this ambitious project, all human cells are to be analyzed in order to understand diseases and health-related processes better. More than 1,600 people in 70 countries are involved in this project. The data to researchers around the world are available. Through the project now with important information about COVID were won-19.
“While we create the Atlas of the human cells, it is used to understand COVID-19, and to determine which cells are the primary infection and Transmission is crucial,” emphasizes Dr. Sarah Teichmann, Co-Chairman at the end of the project. The findings offer Teichmann, according to a Foundation for the development of potential treatments and strategies for containment.
The Atlas offers new approaches
“By the accurate determination of the characteristics of each individual cell type of the Human Cell Atlas helps the researchers to diagnose diseases, including COVID-19 on a completely new way to monitor and treat,” adds Professor Sir Jeremy Farrar, the Director of the Wellcome Sanger Institute. Cooperation across borders and the open exchange of research results is crucial for the rapid development of effective diagnostics and therapies, to ensure that no country is left behind. (vb)